The 37 people were all Saudi nationals, who received the death penalty for charges including adopting extremist terrorist ideology, the formation of terrorist cells, attacking security offices using explosives and killing a number of security personnel.
On Monday, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for an attack on a security building in the town of Zulfi, northwest of Riyadh, the capital.
Mujtabaa al-Sweikat, one of the people executed on Tuesday, was arrested at an airport in Saudi Arabia's eastern province in December 2012 as he was preparing to leave the country for a college visit to Western Michigan University, the group said.
According to Human Rights Watch, Saudi Arabia executed 139 people in 2018 based on the interior ministry's statements.
Saudi Arabia generally beheads prisoners condemned to death, in ceremonies performed by executioners using a sword - a punishment in line with the kingdom's strict interpretation of Islamic law.
Those who were executed were found guilty by the Specialized Criminal Court of attacking security installations, killing a number of security officials and working with enemy organizations against the country's interest.
Human rights group Amnesty while hitting out at the Saudi Crown Prince's government said that the majority of those executed were convicted under "sham trials". Saudi King Salman ratified the executions for terrorism-related crimes by royal decree.
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The Saudi interior ministry confirmed the executions, which it described as "implementation of the provisions of the Sharia court against 37 convicted of terrorist and security cases".
The Interior Ministry's statement on the executions was spread across state-run media, including the Saudi news channel al-Ekhbariya. The body of one of the men, Khaled bin Abdel Karim al-Tuwaijri, was attached to a pole for several hours.
Among those put to death was a young man who was convicted of a crime that took place while he was under the age of 18.
Iran's foreign minister Javad Zarif also criticised the executions and what he said was USA complicity.
Among those executed, at least 14 were convicted of violent offenses relating to their participation in anti-government demonstrations, Amnesty International reports.
None of the men executed Tuesday were as prominent as al-Nimr, and it was not immediately clear whether there would be a reaction to the executions, either inside Saudi Arabia or overseas.
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