He recorded a finish of 25.99 seconds to retain his 50m breaststroke world title.
The 22-year-old clocked 26.10 seconds, lowering his own mark of 26.42 set at the world champs in Kazan two years ago.
The Olympic champion won the semi-final in 25.95 seconds, becoming the first person to break 26 seconds and eclipsing his 26.10 in the heats.
Peaty, alongside James Guy, Georgia Davies and Siobhan O'Connor, was unable to increase his medal tally although the team came fifth, narrowly missing out on the podium even though two of the group struggled with illness in the build-up. It was almost a second slower than her world-record performance at the Rio Olympics last summer but enough to hold off hard-charging Yui Ohashi of Japan, who settled for silver in 2:07.91. He went even faster during the evening semifinals, touching in 25.95. "On Wednesday night he was just 0.04 seconds outside that semi-final time in winning the final in 25.99 seconds with something to spare".
He returned to the pool to break the 50m world record of 26.42 he set at the 2015 World Championships in Russian Federation.
"I knew where I had to be, the only thing I wanted to do this morning was get a (good) lane for tonight".
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" I just dived in, I felt good and I wasn't that far behind after the start which is a bonus for me".
"We get a lot of rivalries like this in football, basketball, swimming where we see a lot of really nice people, being really nice", she added.
"I didn't think I was going to do that", he grinned.
Once that had sunk in, the hands went up, showing off those Adonis-esque biceps, but these days only world records will completely suffice for this phenomenon of the pool.
Having already set a world record with her leadoff leg in the 4x100 freestyle relay, Sjostrom almost took down another mark in the fly with a winning time of 55.53.
The oldest in the field at 28, Pellegrini stormed back from fourth at the final turn to take gold ahead of Katie Ledecky of America and Australia's Olympic bronze medallist Emma McKeon, who had led until the 150m mark.
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